Major Issues and Constraints in the Development and Promotion of Renewable Energy Technologies
Various factors such as the wide geographical variability, lower literacy rate among the users and high cost factor are some of the major issues associated with the promotion of sustainable energy in the country. The table below presents major issues and constraints associate in the development of promotion of specific renewable energy technology in the country.
|RETs||Technical||Financial||Policy and Institutional|
|Micro – Hydropower(MHP)||a) Most mill owners are not trained in management
b) O&M Operation and Management ignored
c) Management aspect neglected in feasibility studies
d) The cost of feasibility studies borne by manufacturers, studies are biased leading to various technical and socio-economic problems
|a) The high cost of the plants and low load factors (below50%) of the plants make projects economically unviable
b) Lack of data is another constraint
|a) Investment allocated to this sector is too meager to have any impact
b) Lack of systematic monitoring and evaluation because of lack of inter institutional linkages and coordination
c) Priority given to the projects themselves rather than to developmental activities for end-use devices
|Biogas||a) Quality of construction material and monitoring differ among the companies installing such plants
b) Poor performance as a result of inferior construction material, selection of wrong sized, and negligence in construction and operation
c) The main problem in family size plants is low gas yield during the winter and rainy seasons.
d) The problems for community-sized plants relate to ineffective management, sharing of benefits etc.
|a) Although biogas production is superior to direct burning of cake (dung) in terms of energy utilization (thermal efficiency of 60 per cent against 11 per cent for dung cake), it can only be profitable and attractive for marginal farmers if a subsidy is provided along with appropriate financing mechanism.
b) Biogas production will become more popular as fuel wood becomes scarcer
|a) Institutional gaps are the main bottleneck to promoting and carrying out the government policy and program smoothly
b) There is no research and development (R&D) institute to concentrate on developing less expensive biogas plants
c) There is a need for a competent biogas development and promotion unit with full authority for overall policy development, planning, monitoring, evaluation, quality control, research, and training and able to establish a functional linkage between the biogas related organizations
d) More than 50 Private Biogas Companies actively engaged
e) Subsidy in the biogas installation decreased
|Improved Cooking Stoves (ICS)||a) Holes for pots are too small to accommodate the large pots used in many households
b) The baffle is too small to achieve good heat transfer
c) ICS cannot provide both space heating and cooking, especially important in the higher hills and mountains
d) ICS cannot handle agricultural biomass and industrial residues
e) Inserts are too heavy and too fragile for widespread dissemination in Nepal
f) Lack of quality control at production sites results in the production of low quality stoves
|a) ICS programs are largely dependent on funding from external donors rather than on mobilization of internal funds (weak financial sustain ability)||a) No national policy framework and program direction integrating ICS as a multi sect oral component
b) AEPC has the overall responsibility for the development and promotion of ICS which has been adopting subsidy less promotion of ICS
c) Five Renewable Energy Service Centers (RRESC) established under the National ICS program provides institutional framework for ICS
d) Lack of extensive and continuous research
e) Overemphasis on achieving dissemination targets with little attention given to extension and monitoring.
f) Lack of interaction between researchers, extension agencies, and policy planners, as well as between producers and end users
g) ICS Network coordinated by CRT/N with the support from ARECOP provides a forum for interaction among the ICS stakeholders.
|Solar||a) Lack of adequate knowledge, information, and technical know-how among the manufacturers is a major problem for solar water heaters
b) Leakage problems in storage tanks and hot water pipelines is a problem for industrial solar heaters
c) Solar cookers cannot be used for frying, cooking time is longer, and their use is limited to times of good sunshine. Lack of a storage system is another problem limiting their widespread promotion and dissemination
d) Frequent breakdown of electrical components is a major problem in PV electricity generation
|a) The financial performance of solar thermal devices appears sound,
b) Financial aspects of PV systems has been found to be negative
c) Solar dryers have high capital investment costs
|a) Strong need for institutions to enforce standards and provide quality control for manufacturers, especially in the case of solar water heating systems
b) Lack of institutional set up for the technical backup to the private manufacturers.